Meningitis is usually caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

Viral meningitis is the most common and least serious type. Bacterial meningitis is rare, but can be very serious if not treated.

Several different viruses and bacteria can cause meningitis, including:

A number of meningitis vaccinations provide protection against many of the infections that can cause meningitis.

How meningitis is spread

The viruses and bacteria that cause meningitis can be spread through:

The infection is usually spread by people who carry these viruses or bacteria in their nose or throat, but are not ill themselves.

The infection can also be spread by someone with meningitis, although this is less common.

It's possible to get meningitis more than once.

Who's most at risk?

Anyone can potentially get meningitis, but it's more common in:

You can reduce the risk of getting meningitis by ensuring all your vaccinations are up to date.

Find out more about meningitis vaccinations

Page last reviewed: 25 October 2022
Next review due: 25 October 2025