Endocarditis is a rare and potentially fatal infection of the inner lining of the heart (the endocardium). It's most commonly caused by bacteria entering the blood and travelling to the heart.

Although the heart is usually well protected against infection, it may be easier for bacteria to bypass the immune system in people who have:

People who inject drugs are also more likely to develop endocarditis.

Find out more about the causes of endocarditis

Symptoms of endocarditis

The initial symptoms of endocarditis are similar to flu and include:

Without treatment, the infection damages the heart valves and disrupts the normal flow of blood through the heart.

This could trigger a range of life-threatening complications, such as:

Find out more about the symptoms of endocarditis

Treating endocarditis

Endocarditis is treated with a course of antibiotics given via a drip. You'll need to be admitted to hospital for this.

Some people also need surgery to repair or replace a damaged heart valve or drain any abscesses that develop.

Endocarditis is a serious illness, especially if complications develop. Early diagnosis and treatment is vital to improve the outlook for the condition.

Find out more about the treatment of endocarditis

Who's affected

Endocarditis is a rare condition in England, even in those with a higher risk.

It's more common in older people.

But cases of endocarditis have been recorded in children, particularly those born with congenital heart disease.

Twice as many men are affected as women.

Although it may sound strange, rates of endocarditis are increasing because of advances in medical care.

This is because there's an increasing number of people being treated with valve replacement surgery or surgery to repair congenital heart disease.

Page last reviewed: 16 August 2022
Next review due: 16 August 2025