Ear infections

Ear infections are very common, particularly in children. You do not always need to see a GP for an ear infection as they often get better on their own within 3 days.

Check if it's an ear infection

The symptoms of an ear infection usually start quickly and include:

Young children and babies with an ear infection may also:

Most ear infections clear up within 3 days, although sometimes symptoms can last up to a week.

If you, or your child, have a high temperature or you do not feel well enough to do your normal activities, try to stay at home and avoid contact with other people until you feel better.

Differences between inner, middle and outer ear infections
Differences between middle and outer ear infections
Inner ear infection Middle ear infection (otitis media) Outer ear infection (otitis externa)
Can affect both children and adults Usually affects children Usually affects adults aged 45 to 75
Caused by viral or bacterial infections Caused by viruses like colds and flu Caused by something irritating the ear canal, such as eczema, water or wearing earplugs
Affects parts of the inner ear like the labyrinth and vestibular system, and can lead to labyrinthitis Affects the eustachian tube, which connects the middle ear (area behind the eardrum) to the back of the nose Affects the ear canal (the tube between the outer ear and the eardrum)

How to treat an ear infection yourself

To help relieve any pain and discomfort from an ear infection:

Do

  • use painkillers such as paracetamol or ibuprofen (children under 16 should not take aspirin)

  • place a warm or cold flannel on the ear

  • remove any discharge by wiping the ear with cotton wool

Don’t

  • do not put anything inside your ear to remove earwax, such as cotton buds or your finger

  • do not let water or shampoo get in your ear

  • do not use decongestants or antihistamines – there's no evidence they help with ear infections

A pharmacist can help with an ear infection

Speak to a pharmacist if you think you have an outer ear infection.

They can recommend acidic eardrops to help stop bacteria or fungus spreading.

Non-urgent advice: See a GP if you or your child have:

  • a very high temperature or feel hot and shivery
  • earache that does not start to get better after 3 days
  • swelling around the ear
  • fluid coming from the ear
  • hearing loss or a change in hearing
  • other symptoms, like being sick, a severe sore throat or dizziness
  • regular ear infections
  • a long-term medical condition – such as diabetes or a heart, lung, kidney or neurological disease
  • a weakened immune system – because of chemotherapy, for example

What happens at your appointment

The GP will often use a small light (an otoscope) to look in the ear.

Some otoscopes blow a small puff of air into the ear. This checks for blockages, which could be a sign of an infection.

Treatment from a GP

Infections inside the ear

The GP may prescribe medicine for your ear infection, depending on what's caused it.

Antibiotics are not usually offered because infections inside the ear often clear up on their own and antibiotics make little difference to symptoms, including pain.

Antibiotics might be prescribed if:

They may also be prescribed if your child is less than 2 years old and has an infection in both ears.

If antibiotics are not prescribed, eardrops containing a painkiller and an anaesthetic might be prescribed.

Outer ear infections

The GP might prescribe:

If you have a spot or boil in your ear, the GP may pierce it with a needle to drain the pus.

Eardrops may not work if they're not used correctly.

How to use eardrops
  1. Remove any visible discharge or earwax using cotton wool.
  2. Hold the bottle in your hand to warm it. Cold eardrops can make you feel dizzy.
  3. Lie on your side with the affected ear facing up to put the drops in.
  4. Gently pull and push your ear to work the drops in.
  5. Stay lying down for 5 minutes so the drops do not come out.

Preventing ear infections

You cannot always prevent ear infections, particularly inner ear infections caused by colds and flu.

To help avoid inner ear infections:

To help avoid outer ear infections:

Page last reviewed: 16 June 2021
Next review due: 16 June 2024