Bacterial vaginosis

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common cause of unusual vaginal discharge. BV is not a sexually transmitted infection (STI), but it can increase your risk of getting an STI such as chlamydia.

Check if you have bacterial vaginosis

Symptoms of bacterial vaginosis include:

Half of women with bacterial vaginosis do not have any symptoms.

Bacterial vaginosis does not usually cause any soreness or itching.

If you're unsure it's BV, check for other causes of unusual vaginal discharge.

Non-urgent advice: See a GP or go to a sexual health clinic if:

  • you think you have bacterial vaginosis

The condition is not usually serious, but if you have it you may need to be treated with antibiotics.

It's also important to seek treatment if you're pregnant as there's a small chance it can cause complications with pregnancy.


Sexual health clinics can help with bacterial vaginosis

Sexual health clinics treat problems with the genitals and urinary system.

Many sexual health clinics offer a walk-in service, where you do not need an appointment.

They'll often get test results quicker than GP surgeries.

Find a sexual health clinic

What happens at your appointment

If you have symptoms of bacterial vaginosis, a GP or sexual health clinic will want to confirm it is bacterial vaginosis and rule out an STI.

You'll be asked about your symptoms, and a doctor or nurse may look at your vagina.

A cotton bud may be wiped over the discharge inside your vagina to test for bacterial vaginosis and other infections.

Treatment for bacterial vaginosis

Bacterial vaginosis is usually treated with antibiotic tablets or gels or creams.

These are prescribed by a GP or sexual health clinic.

If you have a same-sex partner, they may also need treatment.

Recurring bacterial vaginosis

It's common for bacterial vaginosis to come back, usually within a few months. If it comes back, you'll usually be given more antibiotics to treat it.

If you keep getting it (you get it more than 4 times in a year), you may be given an antibiotic gel that you put in your vagina. You may need to use this for a few months to help stop bacterial vaginosis coming back.

A GP or sexual health clinic will recommend how long you need to treat it.

They can also help identify if something is triggering your bacterial vaginosis, such as sex or your period.

Things you can do yourself

There are things you can do to help relieve symptoms and prevent bacterial vaginosis returning.


  • use water and plain soap to wash your genital area

  • have showers instead of baths


  • do not use perfumed soaps, bubble bath, shampoo or shower gel in the bath

  • do not use vaginal deodorants, washes or douches

  • do not put antiseptic liquids in the bath

  • do not use strong detergents to wash your underwear

  • do not smoke

What causes bacterial vaginosis

Bacterial vaginosis is caused by a change in the natural balance of bacteria in your vagina.

What causes this to happen is not fully known, but you're more likely to get it if:

Bacterial vaginosis is not an STI, even though it can be triggered by sex.

A woman can pass it to another woman during sex.

You're more likely to get an STI if you have bacterial vaginosis. This may be because it makes your vagina less acidic and reduces your natural defences against infection.

Bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy

If you develop bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy, there's a small chance of complications, such as premature birth or miscarriage.

But bacterial vaginosis causes no problems in the majority of pregnancies.

Speak to a GP or your midwife if you're pregnant and your vaginal discharge changes.

Page last reviewed: 27 October 2022
Next review due: 27 October 2025